Norma Nickerson

Photo of Nickerson, Norma

Norma Nickerson

Research Professor; Director of ITRR

Personal Summary

Norma P. Nickerson, Ph.D., is a Research Professor and Director of the Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research (ITRR), in the College of Forestry and Conservation at The University of Montana. She has authored three books, Snapshots: an Introduction to Tourism 6th Ed. ( 2014),Quality Tourism Experiences (2006), and Foundations of Tourism (1995).    Dr. Nickerson and ITRR are responsible for Montana’s travel and recreation research including the economic impact of tourism, geotourism studies, visitor characteristics, public lands and tourism research, market segmentations, and other niche studies related to tourism and recreation in Montana and surrounding areas.  Dr. Nickerson has written hundreds of research reports and journal articles and speaks throughout Montana as well as nationally and internationally about tourism. She has served on the international board of the Travel and Tourism Research Association (TTRA) and is past president of the Greater Western Chapter of TTRA.  She sits on the editorial board of the Journal of Travel Research and served on the Missoula Parks and Recreation Board appointed by the Mayor from 2010-2015. In January 2017 Dr. Nickerson will assume duties as a board member of the Minneapolis Federal Reserve Bank, Helena Branch, as a tourism and recreation expert.

Education

Ph.D. in Recreation and Leisure - Emphasis in Tourism and Commercial Recreation, University of Utah. Dissertation: Tourism and Personality: A Comparison of Two Models, 1989.

M.S. in Recreation and Leisure - Emphasis in Outdoor Recreation, University of Utah. Thesis: Low Impact Camping and Hiking Behavior: A Study of Two Educational Approaches, 1982.

B.S. in Health, Physical Education and Recreation - Emphasis in Administration of Parks and Recreation, University of North Dakota, 1978.

Courses Taught

~~COURSES TAUGHT

Commercial Recreation Marketing and Tourism

Field Techniques in Recreation and Tourism

Conservation Social Sciences Seminar

Research and Development in Tourism and Recreation

Nature Based Tourism

Administration and Leadership

Tourism Planning and Development

Introduction to Recreation

Teaching Experience

I started teaching outdoor recreation courses while a graduate student at the University of Utah in 1981.  I taught undergraduate core courses at Utah while supervising all the intern students from 1983-1988.  I taught tourism courses for 5 years at Black Hills State University in Spearfish, SD until moving to Missoula, Montana as Director of the Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research.  I generally teach one class or seminar each year at the University of Montana in the Parks, Tourism and Recreation Management program.

Research Interests

My research interests center around the impacts of tourism (both positive and negative) to the environment and to communities. The state of Montana, so rich in beauty, provides the back-drop for nature based tourism unparalleled anywhere in the United States. My interests center around how to have a viable tourism industry while at the same time sustaining the quality of life and natural resources in the state.

Hobbies

Jogging, hiking, backpacking, kayaking with family and friends!

Selected Publications

BOOKS and CHAPTERS

Becerra, L., Bricker, K.S., and Nickerson, N. (2015). Additional Theories Applied in the Context of Tourism, in Demystifying Theories in Tourism Research, Editors Kelly S. Bricker and Holly Donohoe, CABI Publishing, Oxfordshire, UK.

Gennings, G. & Nickerson, N.P. (2006). Quality Tourism Experiences. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

Nickerson, N.P. & Black, R. J. (2000). Changes in Family and Work: Impacts on Outdoor Recreation and tourism in North America. in W.C. Gartner & D.W. (eds.) Trends in Outdoor Recreation, Leisure, and Tourism. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. (in press).

Nickerson, N. P. (1996). Foundations of Tourism, Englewood, NJ: Prentice Hall.

REFERRED JOURNAL ARTICLES

Nickerson, N., Jorgenson, J., and Boley, B. (2016). Are Sustainable Tourists Higher Quality Tourists? Tourism Management. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2015.11.009

Berry, M. S., Nickerson, N.P. & Metcalf, E. (2016). Spatial Distribution of Opinions Regarding the Economic and Ecological Impacts of Wolves and Wolf Management in Montana. Wildlife Society Bulletin (in press).

Berry, M. S., Repke, M., Nickerson, N. P., Conway, L., Odum, A. L., & Jordan, K. E. (2015). Making Time for Nature: Visual Exposure to Natural Environments Reduces Impulsivity and Lengthens Time Perception. PLOS ONE.

Jorgenson, J., and Nickerson, N. (2015). The Role of Social Science in Predicting Support for Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Science. 23(1). 78-79.

Jorgenson, J. and Nickerson, N. (2015). Geotourism and Sustainability as a Business Mindset. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management. DOI: 10.1080/19368623.2015.1010764

Boley, B.B. and Nickerson, N.P.  (2013).  Profiling geotravelers:  an a priori segmentation identifying and defining sustainable travelers using the Geotraveler Tendency Scale (GTS).  Journal of Sustainable Tourism.  21(2) p. 314-330.

Boley, B., Nickerson, N.P., & Bosak, K. (2011). Measuring Geotourism: Developing and Testing the Geotraveler Tendency Scale (GTS). Journal of Travel Research, 50 (5) 567-578.

Nickerson, N. & Oschell, C. (2011). Identifying differences in resident and business owner priorities toward Geotourism concepts and practices. In M. Joppe (Ed.) Seeing the Forest and the Trees - Big Picture Research in a Detail-Driven World. Proceedings of the TTRA International Conference, London, Ontario. CD-ROM, June 19-21, 2011.

Ellard, A., Nickerson, N.P., & Dvorak, R. (2009). The Spiritual Dimension of the Montana Vacation Experience. Leisure/Loisir, Vol. 33 (1), pp. 269-290.

Nickerson, N.P., & Cook, C. (2003). Ecotourism: Linking the Experience to Definition. Refereed paper in Braithwaite, R.W. and Braithwaite, R.L.(Eds.) Riding the Wave of Tourism and Hospitality research. Proceedings of the CAUTHE Conference, Coffs Harbour. CD-ROM, Southern Cross University, Lismore.

Nickerson, N.P., Black, R.J., & McCool, S.F. (2001). Agritourism: Motivations behind farm/ranch business diversification, Journal of Travel Research, 40 (1): 19-26.

McCool, S.F., Moisey, R.N., & Nickerson, N.P. (Nov. 2001). What should tourism sustain? The disconnect with industry perceptions of useful indicators. Journal of Travel Research, 40 (4), 124-131.

Nickerson, N.P., & Jurowski, C. (2001). The influence of children on vacation travel patterns. Journal of Vacation Marketing. 7(1), pp. 19-39.

Nickerson, N. P. & Moisey, R. N. (1999). Branding a state from features to positioning: Making it simple? Journal of Vacation Marketing, vol. 5, no. 3, 217-226.

Nickerson, N. P. (1995). Tourism and Gambling Content Analysis, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol 22, no. 1, pp. 53-66.

Nickerson, N. P., & Ellis, G. D. (1991). Traveler Types and Activation Theory: A Comparison of Two Models, Journal of Travel Research, 29, 26-31.

TECHNICAL REPORTS

Nickerson, N.P., Becerra, L., & Zumstein, P. (2011).  Climate Change & Tourism Literature Review.  (Research Report 2011-1).  Missoula, MT:  Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana.

Boyle, D. & Nickerson, N.P.  (2010). The Geotourism Handbook:  A reference and guide for Montana Businesses.  (Research Report 2010-6). Missoula, MT:  Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana.

Nickerson, N. & Grau, K. (2010).  Economic Impact and Skier Characteristics: Montana.  (Research Report 2010-3).  Missoula, MT:  Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana.

Nickerson, N.P. & Boyle, D.  (2009).  First and Subsequent Visits to Montana:  A behavioral Analysis.  (Research Report 2019-6).  Missoula, MT:  Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana.

Rademaker, L., Nickerson, N.P., & Grau, K.  (2007).  Montana’s Agritourism and Recreation Business:  Ten Years Later.  (Research Report 2007-5). Missoula, MT:  Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana.

Nickerson, N., Ellard, J.A., & Dvorak, R. (2003). The Montana Vacation Experience, Part 1. (Research Report 2003-1). Missoula, MT: Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, School of Forestry, The University of Montana.

Nickerson, N., Dillon, T., Polzin, P., & Sylvester, J.T. (2002). 2002 Economic Impact Survey of Visitors to Montana’s State Parks and Fishing Access Sites, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, University of Montana-Missoula, Missoula, MT.

Nickerson, N., & Dillon, T. (2002). Nonresident Summer Visitor Profile. (Research Report 2002-5). Missoula, MT: Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, School of Forestry, The University of Montana.

Nickerson, N., & Cook, C. (2002). Analysis of the Wilderness Experience on Commercially Guided Trips. (Research Report 2002-9). Missoula, MT: Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, School of Forestry, The University of Montana.

Glaspell, B., & Nickerson, N.P. (2000). 1999 Missouri-Madison Recreation Survey: Results of the Study. (Technical Completion Report 2000-1a). Missoula, MT: Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, School of Forestry, The University of Montana.

Harris, S. E., Nickerson, N. P., & Ellard, A. (1999). Our lady of the Rockies Tram: Marketing Plan & Ridership Estimate (Research Report 66). Missoula, MT: Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, School of Forestry, The University of Montana.

Nickerson, N.P., & Nickerson, R.E. (1998). Economic Impacts of Going-to-the-Sun Road Reconstruction: Montana and “Glacier Area” Impacts (Technical Completion Report 98-5). Missoula, MT: Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, School of Forestry, The University of Montana.

Black, R., & Nickerson, N.P. (1997). The Business of Agritourism/Recreation in Montana. (Research Report No. 50). Missoula, Montana: The University of Montana, Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research.